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Carpet Pros

Few things contribute to the warmth and coziness of a home's interior more than carpeting. There's also nothing quite like the soft feel under your feet when you walk through a room. But if your home has lots of staircases, winding hallways and tight corners, hiring a professional carpet installer will make your life much easier.

ImproveNet can help you get quotes from up to four flooring contractors in your area for free! Then all you'll have to do is decide which type of carpeting to go with. Not sure? Read on!

Carpet Basics

Carpets are the most widely used floor covering in the country. They are beautiful, quickly installed, quiet, and warm under the feet. Carpets provide insulation and reduce noise transmission within the home and from another room below or above.

Carpets are made of both natural and synthetic materials. Natural fiber materials include wool and silk, with silk being used almost exclusively in fine rugs. Synthetic fibers are mostly nylon, polyester, polypropylene, and acrylic.

Carpets are constructed four different ways. It can be machine woven, which means the pile, or surface, yarn is woven at the same time as the backing yarn. If it’s tufted, this means a computer-controlled machine laces yarn in and out of a synthetic backing material and then chooses a cutting style. Carpet can also be bonded, which means short lengths of yarn are bonded in different manners to pre-woven backing. Then it can be hand-knotted, which is used in creating hand-woven rugs and carpets.

Common Textures

Carpet texture is influenced by three yarn factors during its construction: the cut, density, and twist tightness.

Two or more single ply yarns are commonly twisted together to make the carpet more durable: therefore, the tighter the twist, the stronger the pile. Looser twists may feel softer to the touch, but they will not last as long. Some twisted yarns are heat-set for even longer-lasting performance. The processes used in the carpet construction are listed on the label.

Carpet can be either cut or uncut depending on whether the yarn end loops are cut after being woven through the backing. The pile will be tighter and rougher to the touch if it’s cut because the end loops are missing, whereas uncut will be softer to the touch on the back because the loops remain.

Here are some common other carpet texture types to consider buying for the home:

  • Frieze: a cut fiber using tightly twisted yarns
  • Textured: a combination of twisted yarn crimped to form a desired pattern
  • Cable: heavy and well-twisted yarn
  • Berber cut pile: large yarn with a cut pile
  • Berber loop pile: large, uncut yarn
  • Shag: Casual long yarn in a long pile

Common Materials


Wool has been woven into carpets from time immemorial and is still considered the first choice for beauty and appeal. It wears well and with proper care will become more beautiful as it ages. Wool is naturally water repellant, which helps it wear better. It comes in several different shades, depending on the type of sheep's wool selected, and can be readily dyed any color.


In 1938, nylon became the first synthetic fiber to be used for carpeting, and even today it remains the most widely used carpeting material. The quality of nylon has improved greatly over the years, to the point that today some products feel nearly as soft as wool. Nylon is also a welcome substitute for people who are allergic to wool. It is stain resistant, wears exceptionally well, and cleans easily.


This is another synthetic fiber that wears exceptionally well in both residential and commercial buildings. This material became a standard with many carpet manufacturers after 1950. The carpets usually are manufactured with either loop pile or Berber loops.


Polyester is everywhere, including carpets. It does not wear quite as well as nylon, but feels better to the touch

or under bare feet. It is commonly manufactured with a cut pile and textured finish.

How to Judge Carpet Quality

The standard rule in the carpet industry is, "The deeper and denser the pile, the better the carpet." Denseness is judged by how close the yarn strands are to each other. Deepness is found by measuring the height of the pile from the backing. Heavier and denser piles will last longer than light and loose piles.

One way to look at carpet quality is to fold back a portion of the carpet, causing the pile to fan open. This gives you a more accurate view of how dense the material is or how high the pile is than by just running your hand over the surface. By looking at several different carpets in this manner, you will soon get a feel for judging carpet quality.

Other factors to consider when buying carpet are stain- and wear-resistant qualities, along with fade resistance. Carpets may also contain antistatic controls. Most carpet materials should be selected with the end use in mind, i.e., will it be used in areas of light wear, as in bedrooms, or heavy wear, as in hallways, entryways, and living rooms.


Antistatic: The carpet is chemically treated to dissipate electrostatic buildup before it discharges.

Backing: The material that supports the face, or pile, of the carpet. In woven carpets, the backing is a lesser quality wool or silk through which the pile is interwoven. On tufted carpets, it is usually a synthetic fabric. A secondary backing is sometimes added to the carpet to stiffen it and help the carpet retain its original shape.

Berber: A thick yarn, such as wool or nylon, is used in Berber style carpets; the face is a loop pile.

Binding: A strengthening band sewn along the carpet edge. Some may be decorative.

Broadloom: Wider than standard carpets. A broadloom carpet is normally 12 feet wide but may be up to 15 feet wide.

Construction: How the carpet is made, such as woven or tufted, and the way the yarn is placed.

Cushion: Any type of cushioning used under the carpet. Also known as underlayment, cushioning not only makes the carpet wear longer, but also adds to insulation and sound reduction through the subfloor.

Cut pile: The face, or pile, is cut, as opposed to an uncut loop pile.

Cut and loop pile: A carpet face that combines both styles.

Delamination: Separation of the primary backing from the secondary backing. Secondary backing is sometimes added for greater stiffness.

Density: The closeness of the yarn. The more dense the pile, the more yarn is used, which in turn makes a better quality carpet.

Dimensional stability: The manner in which the carpet retains its original shape.

Direct glue-down: Gluing a carpet directly to the floor; often done over concrete floors. The cushion can be glued down first, and then the carpet is glued to it.

Face: The carpet surface. Also called pile or nap.

Frieze: The process of tightly twisting the yarn to give the carpet pile a nubby finish.

Fuzzing: Loose pieces of fiber left on the carpet during the manufacturing process. They are easily vacuumed up. Also sometimes called fluffing.

Hand quality: How the carpet feels when brushing it with your hand.

Heat setting: Setting the twisted yarns in a carpet by heat.

Level loop: The yarn ends are looped and the ends are attached to the carpet backing.

Luster: Reflective sheen on carpet yarns.

Pile: The surface of a carpet; sometimes called face or nap.

Pile crush: Compression of the pile due to furniture or constant traffic. Frequent vacuuming helps restore the carpet pile.

Pilling: Carpet fibers become entangled with each other into a hard mass. Pills can be cut away with scissors.

Plush: Very smoothly textured carpet. This classification [?] is used only on cut-pile carpets that are finished by brushing and shearing.

Ply: A single strand of yarn, or the number of yarn end pieces that are twisted into a plied yarn, such as three-ply yarn.

Resilience: Carpet pile's ability to spring back to its original shape after being compressed.

Saxony: Carpet texture using twisted yarns in a dense configuration.

Shading: A change in the carpet's appearance due to differences in light reflection when the pile is bent one way or the other.

Sisal: Originally, plant fibers used in carpet making. Synthetic alternatives are now sometimes used and still referred to as sisal.

Soil retardant: Chemical coating applied to fibers, usually containing Teflon, that helps prevent soil from adhering.

Sprouts: Individual pieces of yarn, or tufts, that stand above the pile. Can be trimmed with scissors.

Staple: Short fiber lengths converted into spun yarn by a spinning process to lengthen them.

Stitches: Number of yarn tufts per linear inch in a tufted carpet.

Tackless strips: Narrow lengths of thin wood with rows of angled pins that are attached to the floor near the wall to hold the carpet in position once stretched.

Tufting: Process of inserting tufts of yarn through a backing; the pile is then cut or left with loop ends.

Twist: Yarn is twisted to give it more body and strength and a more luxurious feeling.

Underlayment: Cushioning under a carpet.

Woven: Process of weaving materials on a loom to create a rug or carpet.

Carpeting DIYS

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